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Flour Quality

Extraction or flour yield, refers to the portion of the wheat kernel that can be milled into flour.

Ash Content
Ash content or mineral residue, is another measurement of milling efficiency. The lower the ash content, the whiter (in the case of bread wheats) and more refined the flour because it has a greater percentage of starchy endosperm. Ash content has no relationship to semolina color.

Protein Content
Should not drop more than 1.0 percentage point under normal milling conditions during the conversion of wheat to flour.

Wet Gluten
Wet gluten is the material remaining after the starch and soluble material are washed from a dough ball. Gluten is comprised of several proteins. The quantity of protein contained in flour is important, but perhaps even more critical to the mixing and baking process is the quality of the protein.

When flour is mixed with water, gluten forms an elastic framework that gives structure to bread dough during baking. Gluten's elastic nature helps increase loaf volume by trapping carbon dioxide gas produced in the fermentation process. Gluten enables hearth breads to retain their shape better while baking and provides the strength needed in baked products to support heavy, high fiber ingredients such as whole grains, raisins, nuts or dried fruits.

Falling Number
Falling number is a measurement of soundness or alpha-amylase activity in wheat or flour samples. Alpha-amylase is needed to obtain ideal loaf volume, but flour from sprouted wheat can contain too much of this enzyme. The result can be low water absorption and sticky bread crumb. Falling numbers of 300 seconds or more are preferred.

Amylograph Peak Viscosity
Amylograph peak viscosity is another measurement of alpha-amylase activity in wheat or flour samples.